Understanding Reflow Oven to Master Reflow Soldering

Understanding Reflow Oven to Master Reflow Soldering

A reflow oven, also commonly referred to as a reflow soldering machine or reflow soldering oven, is a piece of equipment used to complete the reflow soldering process. In an SMT (Surface Mount Technology) production line, it is typically connected after the pick-and-place machine. After SMD (Surface Mount Device) components are placed by the pick-and-place machine onto PCB (Printed Circuit Board) pads pre-coated with solder paste, the PCB is fed into the reflow oven. Inside the oven, the high temperature causes the solder paste to melt and reflow, and then the PCB is cooled, allowing the solder to solidify, ultimately creating a stable and robust bond between the SMD components and the pads.

Table of Contents

What is a reflow oven?

A reflow oven is a piece of equipment used in electronics manufacturing to solder surface mount components onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). It employs a controlled heating process to melt solder paste, forming reliable connections between the component leads and the PCB pads.

What’s the type of reflow oven?

What’s the type of reflow oven?

Reflow ovens come in various types, each catering to different production needs and specifications. The main types include:

1. Convection Reflow Ovens: These are the most common type of reflow ovens. They use heated air circulated by fans to transfer heat to the PCB assembly and reflow solder paste. Convection ovens offer precise temperature control and uniform heating, making them suitable for a wide range of applications.

2. Infrared (IR) Reflow Ovens: IR reflow ovens use infrared radiation to heat the PCB assembly and reflow solder paste. They can heat up rapidly and are often preferred for lead-free soldering processes due to their ability to provide high peak temperatures. IR ovens are also suitable for reflowing heat-sensitive components.

3. Vapor Phase Reflow Ovens: Vapor phase reflow ovens utilize a special fluid with a low boiling point, such as perfluoropolyether (PFPE), to create a uniform and controlled heating environment. The PCB assembly is immersed in the vapor, ensuring even heating without hot spots or temperature variations. Vapor phase ovens are known for their excellent thermal transfer and are ideal for delicate components and high-density assemblies.

4. Forced Convection Reflow Ovens: These ovens combine convection heating with the use of recirculating gas to enhance heat transfer and reduce energy consumption. They offer efficient heating and cooling cycles, making them suitable for high-volume production environments.

5. Hybrid Reflow Ovens: Hybrid reflow ovens combine different heating technologies, such as convection and IR, to provide precise temperature profiles tailored to specific soldering requirements. They offer versatility and flexibility, allowing manufacturers to optimize their soldering processes for various types of assemblies.

How does a solder reflow oven work?

A solder reflow oven works by heating a printed circuit board (PCB) assembly to a precise temperature profile, causing the solder paste applied to the PCB pads to reflow and form reliable solder joints between surface mount components and the PCB. Here’s a step-by-step explanation of how it works:

● Preparation: Solder paste, a mixture of tiny solder particles and flux, is applied to the pads on the PCB using a stencil or dispenser. Surface mount components are then placed onto the solder paste.

● Loading: The PCB assembly is loaded onto a conveyor belt or fixture inside the reflow oven.

● Heating Zones: The reflow oven consists of multiple heating zones, each with its temperature profile. These zones typically include:

• Preheat Zone: The PCB assembly enters the preheat zone, where it is gradually heated to a temperature sufficient to activate the flux in the solder paste without causing thermal shock to the components.
• Soak Zone: The assembly moves into the soak zone, where it is held at a stable temperature for a specified duration. This allows the entire assembly to reach a uniform temperature, ensuring consistent soldering.
• Reflow Zone: The assembly enters the reflow zone, where the temperature is raised to the melting point of the solder paste. The solder paste liquefies, forming solder joints between the component leads and the PCB pads.
• Cooling Zone: Finally, the assembly enters the cooling zone, where it gradually cools down to solidify the solder joints and prevent thermal stress on the components.
• Control System: A control system regulates the temperature of each heating zone according to a predefined thermal profile. This profile is tailored to the specific requirements of the solder paste, components, and PCB design.

● Monitoring and Feedback: Temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, are used to monitor the temperature at critical points on the PCB assembly. This feedback allows the control system to adjust heating parameters in real-time to maintain the desired temperature profile.

● Exhaust System: An exhaust system removes any volatile byproducts generated during the reflow process, such as flux vapors, to maintain a clean working environment and prevent contamination of the PCB assembly.

By carefully controlling the heating process according to the thermal profile, a solder reflow oven ensures consistent and reliable soldering of surface mount components onto PCBs, making it a fundamental tool in electronics manufacturing.

How many zones are in a reflow oven?

reflow oven zones

The number of zones in a reflow oven can vary depending on the specific model and manufacturer, as well as the requirements of the soldering process. However, most reflow ovens typically have three to six temperature zones. These zones are strategically positioned along the conveyor path to control the heating profile of the printed circuit board (PCB) as it passes through the oven.

Here’s a breakdown of the common zones found in a reflow oven:

1. Preheat Zone(s): The preheat zone(s) gradually raise the temperature of the PCB and components to activate the flux in the solder paste, remove any moisture, and prepare the board for soldering. Preheat zones typically have lower temperatures compared to the soak and reflow zones.

2. Soak Zone(s): The soak zone(s) bring the PCB to a higher temperature, allowing the solder paste to fully liquefy and the components to reach the appropriate temperature for soldering. This zone ensures uniform heating and helps prevent thermal shock to the components.

3. Reflow Zone(s): The reflow zone(s) are where the PCB reaches the peak reflow temperature, causing the solder paste to melt completely. In this zone, the molten solder forms reliable solder joints between the component leads and the PCB pads. Reflow zones typically have the highest temperatures in the oven.

Some advanced reflow ovens may also include additional zones, such as:

4. Cooling Zone(s): The cooling zone(s) gradually reduce the temperature of the PCB after reflow, solidifying the solder joints and preventing component damage. These zones help ensure that the PCB cools down at a controlled rate to avoid thermal stress.

5. Edge Cooling Zone(s): Edge cooling zones are specialized cooling zones positioned at the edges of the PCB to provide additional cooling to the outer regions, where components may experience higher temperatures due to proximity to the conveyor belt or oven walls.

6. Optional Nitrogen Atmosphere Zone(s): Some reflow ovens may include provisions for introducing nitrogen gas during the reflow process to reduce oxidation of the solder and improve solder joint quality, particularly for sensitive components or applications requiring high reliability.

The exact configuration of zones in a reflow oven can be customized based on the specific requirements of the soldering process and the types of components being soldered onto the PCB.

What temperature is a SMT reflow oven?

The temperature of a surface mount technology (SMT) reflow oven typically follows a specific thermal profile during the reflow soldering process. This profile consists of several temperature zones, each with its set temperature range and duration. Here’s a general overview:

1. **Preheat Zone**: This zone gradually heats the PCB and components to a temperature sufficient to activate the flux in the solder paste without causing thermal shock. The temperature in this zone typically ranges from around 100°C to 150°C (212°F to 302°F).

2. **Soak Zone**: In this zone, the temperature is raised to a higher level and held constant for a specified duration to ensure that all components reach the reflow temperature uniformly. The temperature in this zone typically ranges from 150°C to 200°C (302°F to 392°F).

3. **Reflow Zone**: This is the main heating zone where the solder paste reflows, forming solder joints between the component leads and the PCB pads. The temperature in this zone is typically the highest and can range from 200°C to 250°C (392°F to 482°F) or higher, depending on the solder paste and components being used.

4. **Cooling Zone**: After reflow, the PCB is gradually cooled down to prevent thermal stress and ensure the integrity of the solder joints. The temperature in this zone gradually decreases to room temperature.

The exact temperature settings and profiles may vary depending on factors such as the type of solder paste, the specifications of the components, and the requirements of the specific assembly process. It’s essential to optimize the thermal profile to achieve reliable solder joints while minimizing the risk of defects such as insufficient soldering, solder bridging, or component damage due to thermal stress.

How to profile a reflow oven?

How to profile a reflow oven?

Profiling a reflow oven involves creating and analyzing a thermal profile to ensure that the oven is heating the PCB assemblies according to the specified temperature profile required for proper reflow soldering. Here are the general steps for profiling a reflow oven:

1. **Select Thermocouples**: Choose appropriate thermocouples for temperature measurement. Thermocouples are temperature sensors that can withstand the high temperatures of the reflow process. They are typically attached to the PCB at strategic locations to monitor temperature accurately.

2. **Prepare Test PCBs**: Prepare test PCBs with components representative of the actual assemblies you will be soldering. Place the thermocouples at critical locations on the PCB, such as near the components, corners, and center.

3. **Set Up Data Acquisition System**: Connect the thermocouples to a data acquisition system capable of recording temperature data in real-time throughout the reflow process. Ensure that the data acquisition system is calibrated and configured correctly.

4. **Define Thermal Profile**: Determine the desired temperature profile for the reflow process based on the requirements of the solder paste, components, and PCB design. This profile typically includes temperature ramp-up rates, soak times, peak temperature, and cooling rates.

5. **Run Profiling Experiment**: Place the test PCBs with attached thermocouples into the reflow oven and run a reflow cycle according to the defined thermal profile. Ensure that the oven is empty except for the test PCBs to avoid interference with airflow.

6. **Monitor Temperature**: Monitor the temperature data collected by the thermocouples throughout the reflow process. Pay attention to temperature variations, overshoots, and deviations from the desired profile.

7. **Analyze Data**: Analyze the temperature data to assess how well the oven is achieving the desired thermal profile. Look for any areas where the temperature deviates significantly from the target profile and identify potential hot or cold spots.

8. **Adjust Oven Settings**: If necessary, make adjustments to the oven settings, such as conveyor speed, heating elements, airflow, or zone temperatures, to optimize the thermal profile and minimize temperature deviations.

9. **Repeat and Fine-Tune**: Repeat the profiling experiment and adjustments as needed until the oven consistently achieves the desired temperature profile with minimal variation.

10. **Document and Validate**: Document the final thermal profile settings and validate the reflow process by running additional test assemblies and inspecting the solder joints for quality and reliability.

By following these steps, you can effectively profile a reflow oven to ensure that it meets the required temperature specifications for reliable and consistent reflow soldering of PCB assemblies.

What is the cycle time of a reflow oven?

The duration of a reflow oven cycle typically ranges from around 5 to 10 minutes. This time includes the preheat, soak, reflow, and cooling stages required to solder the components onto the printed circuit board (PCB) effectively. The specific time may vary based on factors such as the oven’s design, thermal profile settings, and the complexity of the PCB assembly being processed.


A reflow oven is a piece of equipment used in electronics manufacturing to solder surface mount components onto printed circuit boards (PCBs).

Convection Reflow Ovens
Infrared (IR) Reflow Ovens
Vapor Phase Reflow Ovens
Forced Convection Reflow Ovens
Hybrid Reflow Ovens

Preheat Zone
Soak Zone
Reflow Zone
Cooling Zone
Edge Cooling Zone
Optional Nitrogen Atmosphere Zone

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