An intensive understanding of main PCBA
What does main PCBA mean?
Electronics devices have become inseparable part of our daily life. Whether the person is a student, professional, parent, hobbyist, etc. We are surrounded by these electronic devices in the form of washing machine, microwave, smartphone, LED TV, etc.
The fundamental thing which can be found in any electronic device yet ignored casually is main PCBA (printed circuit board assembly).The PCBA or main printed circuit board assembly is a complete package which include PCB(printed circuit board), electronics components and accessories.
It is the fundamental building block of all electronic devices. A main PCBA is a piece of board which provides mechanical strength and platform for electronics components to make electrical connections by the help of copper traces.
What is the PCB assembly process?
A printed circuit board(PCB) is a basic part of any electronics device. Yet, its importance is sometimes neglected. It provides the surface for electronics circuit to work properly, without it, it will be nearly impossible to imagine an electronics device to function. It is made of laminated sheets of fiber which provide mechanical support to the electronics circuit.
Traces of copper are made on these sheets to for the connectivity of electronics components like resistor, capacitor, inductor, etc. Whereas, a printed circuit board assembly refers to a complete circuit which includes PCB and its electronics parts. A PCBA can be of different types depending on the type of PCB design. For simple circuits single PCB is used and for as the complexity increases the layers of circuit also increases.
What is main PCBA material?
The main PCBA assembly process means the making of complete circuit which includes the PCB and electronics components. According to technology of electronic components, there are two types of component. The through hole technology and surface mount technology(SMT).
The through hole technology is one in which electronics components leads go through the PCB from one side and soldering is done on copper traces on the other side. While in surface mount technology(SMT) the leads of electronics components are placed on the surface of PCB and soldering is done on the same side.
It determines the manufacturing of circuit. The five type of assembly processes are:
- Single sided SMD
- Double sided SMD
- Single side mixed assembly
- Mixed assembly on side A and simple SMD on side B
- The plug in on side A and simple SMD on side B
What are main PCBA used for？
The electronics device have become common household product which is found in every home. The common electronics devices are washing machine, iron, smartphone, LED TV, microwave, etc. But the use of electronics devices is not limited to the home only, they have important use in industry equipment, medical devices, LEDs, safety and security equipment, etc.
This vast use of electronics devices would not have been without the help of main PCBA. The main PCBA is the heart of every electronics device. These PCBA control the flow of electrons to perform various different task be it in the form of analog or digital. The use of the main PCBA has made our life so easier which can be observe clearly.
The electronics devices are used in industry to measure different physical parameters like flow of liquid, temperature of heaters, pressure of liquid, speed of motors, etc.
In the field of medical electronics devices are use for ultrasonic scanner, monitoring blood pressure, insulin pumps, pace maker, etc.
The light emitting diodes are used for residential lighting, display monitors, medical lighting, dashboard indicators, etc.
Safety and security equipment
Safety and security is dependent on electronics devices such as security camera, burglar alarm, smoke detectors, etc.
What is main PCBA material?The performance and life of main PCBA depends upon electronics components and PCB material. For a smooth long lasting performance, it is necessary to use good quality of electronics component like resistor, capacitor, inductor, I.C, etc. Material of PCB also play important role in the performance of circuit. It provides tensile strength, temperature resistance, flexibility, dielectric strength, etc. The three common materials used for fabrication of PCB are:
FR4It is a laminated glass-reinforced epoxy sheet. The epoxy used has water resistance and is flame retardant. It offers good weight to strength ratios. This material has a very high level of tensile strength.
PTFE(Teflon)Due of its exceptional flexibility, TFE is crucial in applications requiring precise tolerances. Additionally, because of how light it is, it may be employed in a variety of industries. Additionally, it is resistant to flames, strong physically, stable at all temperatures, and versatile in use.
MetalThe metals like copper, gold or silver is used in PCB for electrical connectivity. These metals have good conductivity which increases the efficiency of circuits.
How are components put on a PCB?For the circuit to work properly it is important to put right component on the right location. For through hole technology human hand are used for placing and soldering of electronics component which is easier compare to surface mount technology(SMT). On the other hand SMT requires special machines designed for placing and soldering of electronics components due to there small size and precision in placing.
How is main PCBA manufactured?
The process of manufacturing main PCBA starts from designing PCB. Computer aided design(CAD) software such as Altium, Eagle PCB, etc are used to design single or multi layer PCB depending upon the requirements.
After designing and simulation of circuits on computer, a prototype is made for checking and testing purpose i.e. as discussed earlier PCB made up laminated sheets of epoxy infused fiberglass and conductive core materials are made for electronics components. Finally, after making PCB, electronics components are fixed on PCB and testing is done to compare to the desired output.
What is PCBA testing?After soldering the components onto the PCB, inspect and test the assembled PCB.A board such as this is commonly called a device under test. The testing of PCBA includes:
Automated optical inspection(AOI)This method uses camera to visualize board for proper placing of components and ensuring soldering joints. It is use to identify missing components and improper soldering.
Automated X-ray inspection(AOX)This method uses X-ray for to validate solder connections on the board and and joints which are hiding underneath components. It is best for ball grid array(BGA) components.
Flying probe testingPogo pins are used in these test procedures to measure capacitance, resistance, and other important properties between test locations on the product. Robotic test probes are used by a Flying Probe tester to quickly make contact with each test point and measure the distance between each test point and the others. Up to 30 seconds may pass throughout this procedure
The printed circuit board assembly(PCBA) relies on the type of printed circuit board(PCB) which determines type of electronics components to be used and the functionality of circuit. The PCBA is a package which can perform any desired task but protective cases or body is use to cover these main PCBA in electronics device to work in different environments necessary.