IC substrate – the latest and most secure method of integratiion of circuit packages

Table of Contents

What is IC substrate?

These days, IC substrate is gaining much popularity; due to the integration of various integrated circuits, IC substrate has emerged as a feasible option. When several kinds of integrated circuit packages are combined into a single device, they require support that enables them to do so flawlessly. This is where IC substrates come into play.

Integrated circuit substrate has a feature called baseboards, and professionals use these baseboards to keep the packing of integrated circuit chips in good condition for an extended time. These IC substrate generates a thermal dissipation tunnel; this tunnel assists in capturing the integrated circuit and directing the link to the chip of the PCB.

Producing ICs requires IC fabricators to have the ability to produce connectivity densities that surpass those of PCB fabricators due to the unique role that IC fabricators play. As a consequence of this, IC substrate  is utilized in high-density designs by professionals.

In addition, these IC substrate provides the circuit boards with support and protection by having a variety of capabilities that fall under various classifications.

Types of IC substrate

Classified by packaging types

★ Substrate for BGA (Ball Grid Array) integrated circuits

This categorization is utilized by experts when heat and electricity must be dissipated. These chips come equipped with a function that allows for an increase in the total number of chip pins. These circuits work effectively when an integrated circuit requires many pins, such as more than 300 pins.

★ Ceramic multi-chip module substrate

Ceramic Multi-Chip Module Substrate

It is a unique feature of this IC substrate that it can serve numerous purposes simultaneously. These chips are the best option when a 3-in-1 solution is required because of their thin, lightweight, and compact design. However, they are deficient in intricate routings on integrated circuits and thermal dissipation.

★ Substrate for CSP (Chip-scale package) integrated circuits

The miniaturization and light weight of these chips is a unique quality. This type of IC substrate is popular in the memory product and telecommunications industries because of the need for a small dimension and a minimal number of pins.

★ Substrate for integrated circuits in FC (Flip-chip) technology

The flip-chip form of packaging has a particular specialty that they uphold, and they play a significant part in efficiently transferring heat. As a result of their reduced circuit loss, they manage signal interference and keep circuit performance stable.

Classified by material characteristics

◆  RIgid integrated circuit base
ABF resin, BT resin, or epoxy resin are some of the most common components used in Rigid-Based Integrated Circuits. The range of their thermal expansion is 13–17 ppm/°C.

◆  Flex IC substrate
Flex IC substrate is constructed primarily out of PE or PI resin. Their specific heat ranges from 13 to 27 ppm/degree Celsius.

◆  The substrate for ceramic ICs
Ceramic integrated circuits’ base material. The Substrate for Ceramic Integrated Circuits often contains silicon, aluminum nitride, oxide, or carbide as its primary components. Their coefficient of thermal expansion is approximately 6-8 ppm/°C.

Classified by bonding technology

■  Wire bonding
Professionals or experts use this type of bonding when there is a need for a wire connection between the external chip and the package chip.

external chip and the package chip

■  Automated tape bonding (TAB)

When flex PCB integration between a polymer-based substrate and conductors is required, Tape automated bonding (TAB) is the preferred technique.

■ Flip chip (FC)
This sort of bonding is used by experts when a polymer adhesive, welded joint, or solder contact is required

How does IC substrate work?

A thin layer of material known as an IC substrate is used to interconnect various electronic parts. Typically, the substrate is fabricated from a rigid material like glass, plastic, or metal.

Printed circuit boards are the most prevalent form of IC substrate. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) can be constructed from various materials. They typically consist of two or more conductive layers (like copper) separated by an insulating layer. IC substrate can have a single layer of conductive material, two or many layers.

Electronic components are supported and connected on PCBs via conductive rails and pads. Copper, a good conductor of electricity, is commonly used to make the tracks. The pads are often fabricated from a different material, such as solderable brass, that can form a reliable connection with the leads of the component.

Vias connect the tracks and pads on the PCB to one another. IC substrate vias are the tiny tubes or holes that connect it to the rest of the board.

What is IC packaging?

The very final step in the manufacturing process of semiconductor devices is called IC Packaging. This step involves the packaging of integrated circuits. During this stage of the production process, the semiconductor device is encased in the casing of the integrated circuit substrate. This provides the device with protection from any potentially harmful elements that may be present in its environment.

These integrated circuit packing designs offered a variety of categories, which entirely depended on the requirements and the formation of the circuit board. Lead frame packaging and substrate kind of packing are the two types of packaging most commonly used by professionals. These two categories are distinguished by the following specializations:

Lead frame packaging and substrate kind of packing

●Quick and easy socketing is possible due to the pins being arranged in a grid pattern.
●The circuit is supported by its lead frame packages, which also protect the device.
●In addition to holding a small surface area, the chip-size packaging that this company offers also has the functionality to manage direct surface mountable single-die packages.
●Its deployment at the initial level of surface mounting and the use of a quad flat no-lead package contribute to the device’s ability to mimic the size of a chip.
●The multichip module makes it possible to integrate a variety of various types of components, and it also offers the functionality of integration in situations in which a multiple-level connection is required.
●The area package does not call for any particular surface to be used for the interconnection; instead, it only contains the available space to be used and offers the highest possible level of functionality.

The application of IC substrate

The fact that IC substrate PCB is only applicable to a certain number of electronic products stems mostly from the fact that various types of electronic products have varying needs or requirements depending on how they are used. There are instances when IC substrate PCB is mainly employed in places where a covering for a tiny or micro circuit is required.

IC substrate printed circuit boards can be utilised in a variety of contexts; examples of these contexts include the following:

●In order to improve the performance of memory during the chip packaging process, which takes place in extremely small electromechanical systems
●Contributes to the regulation of radiofrequency emissions during the chip packing process
●Contributes to the protection of the circuit board in high-speed devices thanks to the extremely thin layer it possesses.

Different kinds of rapidly expanding electronic gadgets

●Different kinds of rapidly expanding electronic gadgets, such as mobile phones, tablets, and personal computers; various health care sectors with the purpose of enhancing the functioning capabilities of various types of medical equipment
●To improve the functionality and performance of chips in the telecommunications industry, as well as to increase signal strength and longevity
●Various Industrial sectors and the Mechanical Performance and Longevity of Machines

The manufacturing process for IC substrate

The IC substrate’s primary role is to link the IC chip and the PCB. The IC substrate is responsible for this capability to to the connections made via the conductive holes. The following steps involved in producing an IC substrate have been defined by experts.

● Manufacturing procedures

● Patterning and plating copper technique

The production process begins with a copper plating stage. This method is helpful in regulating the thickness of the circuit board’s protective covering and controlling the compensation technology underneath. In this method, the circuit board’s delicate coating is not damaged.

● Method for using a soldering mask:

Once the copper plating and patterning processes are complete, the solder mask can be applied. This method is used to fill holes in the IC substrate of printed circuit boards.

● Analysis the thickness of surface:

During this step of the process, the thickness of the covering for the circuit board will be measured to ensure that it is uniform. Because an uneven application may reduce the performance of the PCB, particularly if the surface is uneven. Because of this, professionals place a significant emphasis on this procedure.

The characteristics of IC substrate

Engineers and other professionals in the field almost universally agree that it is best to begin by comprehending the integrated circuit board to most effectively take advantage of the qualities offered by the IC substrate. Therefore, a solid understanding of the IC substrate’s properties is crucial. The following is a list of some of the most crucial traits that professionals highlight

Small circuits

The IC substrate has the quality of being able to accommodate tiny and minuscule circuits, which are simple to assemble. It helps create a circuit that is both basic and consistent.

Technique for reducing expenses

There are times when it is necessary to implement cost-effective strategies in addition to integrated circuits with a high performance level. The use of IC substrate results in solutions that are both high-performing and cost-effective.


Because of their high level of dependability, the use of IC substrates has gained a lot of favor over the period of the past several years. The primary reason for this is the use of IC substrate in the telecom industry, as well as the healthcare sector and a significant number of other businesses.

The solution that is efficient in energy use

Integrated circuit substrates provide solutions that call for a substantially lower amount of electricity or energy to operate in order to carry out their duties. Experts place a significant amount of importance on this characteristic in their analyses because of the changes that have occurred in the components that supply energy. Thus this cost effective stratergy won’t be any effect on the performance of the IC substrate at all.

Technology involved in the production of IC substrate

As a result of implementing the direct imaging technology solution, manufacturers and fabricators can increase their output while decreasing their total cost of ownership. Standards for quality output have been built into the technology. The most significant findings are high-throughput registration accuracy on the Circuit boards used in the IC substrate process and the ability to image small lines down to around 8 m.The presence of novel substrate processes such as the modified semi-additive process and the semi-additive process is made possible by these well-tested and accurate systems.

Automated optical shaping systems

PCB AOI test technology bears a great deal of responsibility for its many options for keeping circuit boards in one piece during the IC fabrication process. The ability to keep the shape of the circuit board is a critical part of the IC substrate, making this technology very important. The ability to reliably maintain high-quality circuit boards is a crucial characteristic of this technology. Due to the fully automated nature of this technology, no additional labor is required.

Mechanical techniques of optical inspection

This method is widely regarded as the most efficient and precise method for detecting flaws in integrated circuits. This method is ideal for inspecting integrated circuits at high resolutions due the reasons of quality control. The approach uses multiple light sources of varying types to do a comprehensive scan of an integrated circuit’s substrate panel in a single step.

UV laser drilling systems

This technique is renowned for its great performance in PCB drilling, in addition to its capability to drill with an ultraviolet laser, which assists professionals in resolving some of the most challenging difficulties associated with integrated circuit substrates. This technology comes highly recommended by industry experts due to its suitability for usage as a foundation for the most cutting-edge integrated circuits. UV Laser Drilling Systems can achieve an accuracy of up to 6 metres.

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