What are copper clad laminates – common types and materials
The main material of PCB is copper clad laminate(CCL), and copper clad laminate is composed of substrate, copper foil and adhesive. The substrate is an insulating laminate composed of polymer synthetic resin and reinforcing materials. The surface of the substrate is covered with a layer of pure copper foil with high conductivity and good weldability, and the common thickness is 18μm~35μm~50μm.
The copper clad laminate with copper foil covered on one side of the substrate is called single-sided copper clad laminate, and the copper clad laminate with copper foil covered on both sides of the substrate is called double-sided copper clad laminate. Whether the copper foil can be firmly covered on the substrate is completed by the adhesive. Common copper clad laminates have three thicknesses: 1.0mm, 1.5mm and 2.0mm.
Various printed circuit boards of different forms and functions are selectively processed, etched, drilled and copper-plated on the copper clad laminate to make different printed circuits. Copper clad laminate mainly plays the role of interconnection, insulation and support for printed circuit boards, and has a great influence on the transmission speed, energy loss and characteristic impedance of signals in the circuit.
Therefore, the performance, quality, processability in manufacturing, manufacturing level, manufacturing cost, and long-term reliability and stability of printed circuit boards depend to a large extent on copper clad laminates.
What is the difference between copper clad laminate and PCB board?
PCB is not equivalent to copper clad laminate. Copper-clad laminate refers to a sheet covered with copper foil on one or both sides of the plywood, and is one of the raw materials for making single-sided or double-sided PCBs. PCB is the abbreviation of printed circuit board. Single sided PCB or double layer PCB is a circuit board that prints the layout and wiring diagram of the circuit on a single-sided CCL or double-sided CCL, and then undergoes corrosion, metallized vias and other processing processes.
What are the types of copper clad laminates?
1. According to the mechanical rigidity of the copper clad laminate, it can be divided into: rigid CCL and flexible CCL.
2. According to different insulating materials and structures, it can be divided into: organic resin CCL, metal-based CCL, and ceramic-based CCL.
3. According to the thickness of the copper clad laminate, it can be divided into: thick CCL[thickness range of 0.8~3.2mm (including Cu)], thin CCL [thickness range of less than 0.78mm (excluding Cu)].
4. According to the reinforcing material of copper clad laminate, it is divided into: glass cloth base copper clad laminate, paper base copper clad laminate, composite base copper clad laminate (CME-1, CME-2).
5. According to the flame retardant grade, it is divided into: flame retardant CCL and non-flame retardant CCL.
6、According to UL standards (UL94, UL746E, etc.), rigid CCL can be divided into four different flame retardancy grades: UL-94V0 grade, UL-94V1 grade, UL-94V2 grade and UL-94HB level.
Common types and characteristics of copper clad laminates
1. Copper-clad phenolic paper laminate is a laminated product made of insulating impregnated paper (TFz-62) or cotton fiber impregnated paper (1TZ-63) impregnated with phenolic resin and hot-pressed. A single sheet of non-alkali glass impregnated cloth, one side covered with copper foil. It is usually used as circuit boards in radio equipment.
2. Copper-clad phenolic glass cloth laminate is a laminated product made of alkali-free glass cloth impregnated with epoxy phenolic resin and hot-pressed. One or both sides are coated with copper foil, which has light weight, good electrical and mechanical properties, easy processing and other advantages.
The surface of the board is light yellow. If melamine is used as the curing agent, the surface of the board will be light green with good transparency. It is mainly used as a circuit board in radio equipment with high operating temperature and operating frequency.
3. Copper-clad PTFE laminate is a copper-clad laminate made of PTFE as the substrate, covered with copper foil and hot-pressed. It is mainly used as a circuit board in high frequency and ultra high frequency circuits.
4. Copper-clad epoxy glass cloth laminate is a commonly used material for hole metallized circuit boards.
5. The soft polyester copper-clad film is a strip-shaped material made of polyester film and copper hot-pressed. It is rolled into a spiral shape and placed inside the device during application. In order to strengthen or prevent moisture, it is often poured into a whole with epoxy resin. It is mainly used for flexible circuit boards and printed cables, and can be used as a transition line for connectors.
At present, the copper-clad laminates available on the market can be divided into the following categories from the perspective of the substrate: paper substrate, glass fiber cloth substrate, synthetic fiber cloth substrate, non-woven fabric substrate, and composite substrate.
Common materials for copper clad laminates
FR-1——phenolic tissue paper, this base material is commonly known as bakelite board (more economical than FR-2)
FR-2——phenolic tissue paper
FR-3——cotton paper, epoxy resin
FR-4——woven glass, epoxy resin
FR-5——glass cloth, epoxy resin
FR-6—— frosted glass, polyester
G-10——glass cloth, epoxy resin
CEM-1——tissue paper, epoxy resin (flame retardant)
CEM-2——tissue paper, epoxy resin (non-flame retardant)
CEM-3——glass cloth, epoxy resin
CEM-4——glass cloth, epoxy resin
CEM-5——glass cloth, polyester
What are the applications of copper clad laminates?
Traditional copper-clad laminates are mainly used to manufacture printed circuit boards to support, interconnect and insulate electronic components. They are called important basic materials for printed circuit boards. It is an important electronic material that is indispensable for all electronic complete machines, including aviation, aerospace, remote sensing, telemetry, remote control, communication, computer, industrial control, household appliances, and even advanced children’s toys.
With the continuous improvement of the level of science and technology, some special electronic copper clad laminates have also been used to directly manufacture printed electronic components in recent years.
Due to the miniaturization, light weight and thinning of electronic products, printed circuit boards must have various high-quality and high-tech features, making printed circuit board manufacturing technology directly related to various contemporary high-tech. Its main and most important material, copper-clad laminate, must also have various high-quality and high-tech characteristics.
Therefore, CCL in the electronic information industry is becoming more and more important.
Copper clad laminate manufacturing industry is a sunrise industry. With the development of electronic information and communication industry, it has broad development prospects. Its manufacturing technology is a high-tech that intersects, penetrates and promotes each other. It develops simultaneously with the electronic information industry, especially the printed circuit industry, and is inseparable.
CCL’s progress and development have been driven by the innovation and development of electronic complete machine products, semiconductor manufacturing technology, electronic mounting technology and printed circuit board manufacturing technology.
The main material of PCB is copper clad laminate(CCL), and copper clad laminate is composed of substrate, copper foil and adhesive.
PCB is not equivalent to copper clad laminate. Copper-clad laminate refers to a sheet covered with copper foil on one or both sides of the plywood, and is one of the raw materials for making single-sided or double-sided PCBs. PCB is the abbreviation of printed circuit board.
Aviation, aerospace, remote sensing, telemetry, remote control, communication, computer, industrial control, household appliances, and even advanced children’s toys.